Dragonflies are insects with 6 legs and a large abdomen. They are fast fliers reaching speeds over 30 miles per hour.
Dragonflies are very colorful insects that like to live in warm climates and near the water. They like to eat mosquitoes and gnats as well as other insects.
They use their legs to catch their prey while still flying and their compound eyes to see in all directions.
Dragonflies are heavy-bodied, strong-flying insects, which hold their wings horizontally both in flight and at rest.
An adult dragonfly has three segments: a head with short antennae, a thorax and abdomen, two compound eyes, and three simple eyes, or ocelli. The jaws are adapted for biting with a toothed jaw, and the head is held in place by a special system.
Dragonfly Facts for Kids
- The dragonfly has a wide variety of vivid colors.
- You can identify a dragonfly by its long body, transparent wings, and large eyes.
- Around 3,000 dragonfly species exist worldwide.
- Dragonflies eat a wide range of insects.
- They can catch their prey mid-air.
- Dragonflies eat over 100 mosquitoes every day.
Where do Ddragonflies Live?
There are dragonflies all over the world, but they are most frequently found in warmer climates near water. Dragonflies are usually found near rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams since they start their lives in water.
Petalura ingentissima, from Australia, is the biggest dragonfly. Its wingspan is up to 6.3 inches (16 cm).
The smallest dragonflies have a mere 7/10 inch (17 – 18 mm) wingspan.
What do they Eat?
Dragonflies hunt on the wing using their acute eyesight and strong, agile flight. They are mostly carnivorous, eating small midges, mosquitoes, butterflies, moths, damselflies, and smaller dragonflies.
Nymphs are voracious predators and eat most living things smaller than themselves. They also feed on tadpoles and small fish, but mostly bloodworms.
Although dragonflies are quick and agile fliers, they can be caught by various predators, including falcons, nighthawks, swifts, flycatchers, and swallows. Some species of wasps also capture dragonflies for their nests.
Dragonflies are found on every continent except Antarctica; some species live throughout the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
They live at temperatures ranging from 18 to 45 °C and can survive at temperatures well above the thermal death point of insects of the same species.
They become scarce at higher latitudes, including in Kamchatka where only a few species are found, and in northern Alaska where only a treeline emerald lives.
The male dragonfly drives off rival males, attracts a female to his territory, transfers his sperm from his primary to secondary genitalia, grasps the female by the head with claspers at the end of his abdomen, and the pair flies in tandem.
Egg-laying involves the female flying over floating or waterside vegetation to deposit eggs, the male hovering above her or continuing to clasp her and flying in tandem, and a rival male trying to scrape out the previous sperm.
The form of laying eggs depends on species and can include slicing a plant with a sharp edge, shaking the eggs out of the abdomen, or placing the eggs on vegetation.
Dragonflies are hemimetabolous insects that are born as nymphs and then molt many times to become adults. They have a toothed labium that extends to capture prey like mosquito larvae, tadpoles, and small fish.
When a naiad is ready to metamorphose into an adult, it stops feeding, climbs a reed or other emergent plant, molts, and emerges, swallowing air, pumping hemolymph into its wings, and expanding to its full extent.
In temperate areas, dragonflies in spring and summer can be categorized into two groups. The spring species emerge in a few days and disappear several weeks later.
The sex ratio of male to female dragonflies varies both temporally and spatially. Males use wetlands to breed while females use dry meadows and marginal breeding habitats to avoid male harassment.
Dragonflies have enormous eyes that wrap around the top of their heads. They use sight to find prey and avoid predators.
Their vision resembles human slow motion. Unlike us, dragonflies see around 200 images per second. A dragonfly sees 360 degrees, using 80% of its brain for sight.
Dragonflies have two sets of wings, and they flap them at different speeds. Dragonflies have four main types of flight: hovering (also called kiting), gliding, flapping, and soaring.
Dragonflies have brilliant iridescent colors produced by structural coloration, making them conspicuous in flight. The blues and greens are typically created by microstructures in the cuticle that reflect blue light, and fresh adults are often pale.
Dragonfly nymphs are a well-camouflaged blend of dull brown, green, and grey, with some species having a structural blue that is produced structurally by scattering from arrays of tiny spheres beneath the cuticle.
Male dragonflies defend their territory by joshing other dragonflies, defending the breeding territory by holding their white abdomen aloft like a flag, defending the feeding ground by feigning death in some species, or by defending certain perches.
Dragonflies are powerful and agile fliers that can migrate across the sea and change direction suddenly. In flight, they can take six directions (up, down, forward, backward, left, right), and use four different flight styles: counter-stroking, phased-stroking, synchronized-stroking, and gliding.
Dragonflies use four different lift mechanisms, including classical lift like an aircraft wing, supercritical lift with the wing above the critical angle, and vortices, and flexing and twisting during each beat.
Dragonflies can fly at a maximum speed of about 36 km/h (22 mph) and can travel at a speed of 100 body lengths per second.