Pamukkale Facts

Pamukkale is a natural site in Turkey that is also known as Cleopatra’s Pool. It is also named Cotton Castle of Turkey and is filled with mineral-rich waters.

Hierapolis is an ancient city built in ancient times, can be seen from Denizli, 20 km away, in a white, travertine formation that has been shaped by calcite-rich springs.

People have visited Hierapolis for thousands of years due to the thermal pools.

The Pamukkale hot springs are very sensitive to disturbance, and visitors are not allowed to walk wearing shoes. It was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1988 along with Hierapolis.

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Pamukkale Facts for Kids

  • Pamukkale is a hot spring city in Turkey
  • People have visited Hierapolis for thousands of years
  • The hot water springs are mineral-rich turquoise water
  • The thermal springs were used as a healing center by doctors
  • It has 17 hot springs that hold gallons of mineral-rich turquoise water. 
  • The thermal pools are surrounded by a castle and are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

When was Pamukkale Discovered

Also known as the  Cotton Castle its believed to be 14,000 years old. 

How Was Pamukkale Formed

Pamukkale’s travertine terraces are made of travertine, a sedimentary rock deposited by mineral water from the hot springs. The water deposits calcium carbonate as a soft gel.

Thermal pools were formed when this hot mineral-rich water flowed over the travertines. These pools are fed by hot mineral-rich water from deep within the earth.


A temple built by the Phrygians in the first half of the 7th century BC was the center of Hierapolis.

Hierapolis was founded as a thermal spa in the 2nd century BC and became a city of healing in the 2nd century BC. It was later destroyed by an earthquake in AD 17 and became part of the Roman province of Asia.

The apostle Philip spent his last years in Hierapolis, and his daughters were said to have been prophetesses in the area. During the Byzantine period, Hierapolis became an important center for Christianity.


The museum at Beycesultan Hüyük contains historical artifacts from the Lycos valley and other towns. It includes some artifacts from Hierapolis and Caria.

World heritage site

Pamukkale is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which is also known for its volcanic hot springs and a cave with suffocating carbon dioxide.

Protecting the thermal waters

The hotels were demolished because they were draining the thermal waters into their swimming pools, damaging the terraces.