Pergamon was an ancient Greek city located in the region of Mysia in what is now modern-day Turkey. It was renowned for its cultural achievements, including art, science, and philosophy, as well as its iconic Temple of Zeus.
Producing important artifacts from the Hellenistic period, it has since become immensely popular with scholars and archaeologists alike.
Pergamon Facts for Kids
- Pergamon was an ancient city located in modern-day Turkey.
- The city was known for its impressive libraries and temples.
- Pergamon was home to the famous Pergamon Altar.
- The city was also known for its medical school and research center.
- Pergamon was a major cultural and economic center in the ancient world.
- The city was ruled by the Attalid dynasty from the 3rd century BCE to the 2nd century CE.
- Pergamon was an important center of the arts, sciences, and philosophy.
What’s the History of Pergamon?
Pergamon has a history that dates back to the 8th century BC. Bronze-age tools were found in nearby areas. However, there is no concrete evidence of human settlement in the area during this time.
The earliest reference to Pergamon can be found in writings by Xenophon, who described a military command in 400 BC which reached its destination there.
After Alexander the Great’s death in 323 BC, his generals split up his conquered territory, and a power struggle ensued over who would get the province of Pergamon.
In 281 BC, Philetaerus (pictured on a coin on the right) founded the Attalid Dynasty and ruled over it for several decades until various rulers, such as Eumenes II, took power over them.
When Attalus III ruled Pergamon, he gave it as a gift to the Roman republic leading it to become the Roman province of Asia with it becoming its capital city.
This action displeased many people inside Pergamon and caused them to revolt, thus leading to Ephesus becoming the new capital city instead. During Hadrian’s rule, Pergamon was granted titles such as a metropolis and given building grants for temples, stadiums, and even spas!
What is Pergamon?
Pergamon is an ancient Greek city located in the Anatolia region of modern-day Turkey, northwest of İzmir. It was a wealthy settlement in antiquity and became renowned for its extensive temples and other structures.
Early records from 1668 provided a detailed description of the area, followed by fuller descriptions from Charles Robert Cockerell and Otto Magnus von Stackelberg.
What happened during its excavations?
The French archaeologist Charles Texier created plans, descriptions, and views of the city and its ruins.
As part of his work, German engineer Carl Humann visited Pergamon to plan topological studies, organize archaeological expeditions, and transport artifacts back to Germany for analysis. This led to the opening of the Pergamon Museum in 1907.
The excavations were put on hold by World Wars but resumed in 1927 under Theodor Wiegand until 1939.
After WWI, all artifacts were taken to the Bergama Museum instead of the ones originally intended for the Pergamon Museum in Germany, while some were sent to Istanbul’s Archaeology Museum, which opened in 1891.
Important Facts and Overview
Pergamon is a hub of historic importance explored during the Hellenistic Age. Its strategic position, stunning surroundings, and impressive buildings inspired beautiful works of art, including the Great Altar, which can now be found in Berlin’s Pergamon Museum.
The city boasts several incredible sites, being home to the Theatre, Temple of Dionysus, Temple of Athena, Library, and Trajaneum, amongst many others.
The Sanctuary of Hera and Demeter, along with the kind-hearted Asclepius” stands for healing surrounding Pergamon and is admired by scholars across the world.
Finally, towards its apex sits the Serapis Temple, dedicated to Greek-Egyptian religion – a testament to Pergamons iconic presence in history.