The source of a river is the point where the flow of water begins. Melting snow, groundwater overflowing in the form of a spring, or excess rainwater running off mountains are examples.
The headwaters of a river are its beginning point and can be either large with many small streams flowing together or just a trickle from a lake or pond. Anything that happens upstream affects everything downstream, so the health of the whole river depends on the headwaters.
1. The mouth of a river is the place where it flows into another river, a lake, or an ocean.
The sources and mouths of rivers can be classified into two types: confluences and deltas.
Deltas are formed when a river meets another river or a larger body of water, such as an ocean or lake. A delta is characterized by a large area of land at the mouth of the river that is shaped like a triangle or fan shape and is often rich in wildlife and natural resources. The Nile River Delta is an example of this type of mouth configuration.
Confluences occur when two rivers merge together to form one larger river system, such as when the Ohio River meets with the Mississippi River to form the Mississippi-Ohio River system.
This type of configuration can also lead to deltas if enough sediment builds up around the joined rivers over time due to decreased current speeds in areas prone to deposit sediments, such as bends or turns in channels.
2. The river’s course is the path that it takes from its source to its mouth.
The course of a river is the longitudinal profile of a river from its source to its mouth. It is determined by the speed and power of the river, which determines its erosion, transport, and sedimentation.
1. The upper course of a river is fast and narrow, running through steep mountains where it wears away land to create V-shaped valleys and steep-sided gorges.
2. The middle course is slower as it flows through flatter areas of land; this stage allows for boats and even large ships to navigate through it comfortably.
3. Finally, the lower course approaches its mouth, where it becomes broad enough for multiple shallow channels cutting through an area of muddy or sandy banks along the coastline
3. Rivers flow downhill from their sources to their mouths.
1. At their source, rivers are fast and narrow. They flow through steep mountains, creating V-shaped valleys and steep-sided gorges.
2. As the river moves downhill, it slows down and moves into flatter areas of land where it becomes wider and deeper, suitable for boats and large ships.
3. Finally, the river approaches its mouth, where it becomes very broad, with multiple channels cutting through an area of muddy or sandy banks along the coastline[Explanation]
Rivers always have a source on high ground where the water begins to flow from melting snow or excess rainwater running off mountains; this starts off as a fast narrow stream which then flows downhill into flatter areas resulting in wider slower streams suitable for boats; finally,,, approaching its mouth where it splits into several shallow channels cutting through muddy/sandy banks along the coastline
4. Rivers are formed when rainwater falls and collects into streams.
The formation of a river begins with the source, or headwaters, which can be melting snow, groundwater that overflows in the form of a spring, or excess rainwater that runs off mountains. The water from these sources flows downhill in a channel and eventually ends up in a body of water such as a lake or ocean.
As it flows downhill, the current slows down and drops the sediment it was carrying along the way. This process creates features such as meanders and deltas.
At certain times of the year, when there is an overflow of water from streams and rivers due to heavy rainfall or snow melt, flooding may occur on the surrounding land, known as floodplains.
5. Some rivers form when melted snow collects into streams.
Rivers that form when melted snow collects into streams include:
1. The source of the Mississippi River is a spring on the Minnesota-South Dakota border.
2. The source of the Columbia River is melting snow from Mount Rainier in Washington state.
3. The Colorado River has its origins in several mountain ranges, including the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada mountains, which get much of their water from melting snow during winter and spring seasons.
4. Rivers such as these can also be fed by groundwater that overflows into springs or other sources of water such as rainfall or lakes nearby that feed into them naturally over time through runoff processes or other means of collection/transport mechanisms (elevation changes due to weather patterns etc.).
6. Some rivers form when two rivers join together.
Some examples of rivers that form when two rivers join together include:
– The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers in Pennsylvania.
– The Nile River which is formed by the joining of several smaller tributaries in Ethiopia.
– The Mississippi River is formed by the confluence of the Missouri River and many other smaller tributaries in Iowa.
7. Rivers can also form when a lake overflows and flows into another river.
Sources: The sources of lakes and rivers are the high ground where the flow of water starts. You could have melting snow, overflowing groundwater, or excess rainwater flowing off mountains.
Mouths: River mouths are where rivers end and outflow into an area such as a bay or ocean. They are typically found at low-elevation areas near coastlines but can also be formed by tributaries joining together at confluences further upstream.
Additionally, some river mouths may just be lakes instead of an actual outlet to another body of water.
8. Rivers can be formed by the flowing of groundwater or the melting of ice.
Rivers formed by groundwater or melting ice are classified as spring-fed rivers and glacial-fed rivers. Spring-fed rivers have their source on high ground and flow clear and cold from mountain forests.
Glacial-fed rivers have their source in melting ice or snow, which can make them warm and muddy.
9. Rivers can also be formed by humans, for example, when they build a canal.
1. The Colorado River: The Colorado River is a human-made river that was originally formed by melting snow and runoff from the Rocky Mountains. V-shaped valleys and steep-sided gorges are formed when it flows through steep mountains.
2. The Mississippi River: The Mississippi River is one of the longest rivers in North America, stretching over 2,300 miles from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. It flows through flatter areas of land where it becomes wider and deeper, suitable for boats and even large ships, eventually approaching its mouth at Louisiana Bayou near New Orleans in Louisiana, USA.
3. Canals: Canals are man-made waterways that connect two bodies of water or allow boats to travel from one place to another via inland waterways instead of seas or lakes.
They often follow natural waterways such as rivers or streams but can also be constructed artificially by digging or dredging them out. Examples include the Panama Canal, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean via Nicaragua, and California’s Central Valley Water Project, which provides irrigation water for farms throughout California’s Central Valley region.
Why is it important to know the source and mouth of a river?
1. The source and mouth of a river determine the characteristics of a river, such as its temperature, volume, and velocity.
The characteristics of a river determined by its source and mouth are:
1. Melting snow, springs formed by overflowing groundwater, or excess rainwater running off mountains are examples of high groundwater sources.
2. It is a moving body of water that can be any size, from small to large rivers.
3. It may have tributaries starting at its headwaters on one side of a divide which then comes together at a confluence point with other tributaries before ending at its mouth where it drops sediment if present in large enough quantities creating a delta if present in large enough quantities creating one if not already existing there already naturally.
2. The source and mouth of a river also determine the types of rocks, soil, and vegetation found in the river’s watershed.
The source of a river is the point where its flow begins, usually on high ground. A spring could be formed by melting snow, groundwater that overflows, or excess rain that runs off mountains.
The mouth of a river is where it flows into another body of water, such as an ocean or lake. The source affects the quality and composition of the water and sediments found in the watershed around it, while the mouth influences aquatic ecosystems at its endpoint.
Additionally, rivers influence their surrounding environments by exchanging water, materials, energy, and nutrients with them – this is especially true for riparian zones, which are most affected by river corridors due to their unique biodiversity compared to other areas further away from them.
Furthermore, terrestrial insects falling into streams constitute important parts of stream fish diets providing vital nutrition for organisms living in or around these waters.
3. Knowing the source and mouth of a river gives a greater understanding of the river’s ecosystem, wildlife, and human settlements.
It is important to know the source and mouth of a river because it can help us understand how rivers form, where they flow, and what impacts they have on their surroundings. Understanding where rivers begin and end helps us better appreciate their role in ecosystems as well as the importance of protecting them.
The source of a river is usually located at high elevations in mountainous regions. It is the furthest stream from its mouth, which can be either a sea or an inland basin, depending on the size of the river.
As rivers flow, they gather water from tributaries, streams, and other rivers that run into them, granting them more water and sediment to pass downriver towards their mouths which can be either open ocean outflows or deltas with rich biodiversity zones around them.
4. The source and mouth of a river can tell us how the river might change in the future due to natural and human-made changes.
The source of a river is where the flow of water begins, usually on high ground, such as melting snow or groundwater that overflows in the form of a spring. The mouth is where the river ends and flows out into an ocean or another body of water.
By understanding how rivers form and where they end, we can predict how they might be impacted by human interference, such as diverting water flows or building dams. These actions can change the course of rivers, redirecting necessary water flows and impacting valuable alluvium deposits along their banks.
Additionally, many nations rely on rivers for their drinking water supply; therefore, it is important to be mindful of areas around river mouths that are susceptible to damage from human interference.
5. Knowing the source and mouth of a river can help us predict floods, riverbank erosion, and other hazards.
Knowing the source and mouth of a river can help us predict floods, riverbank erosion, and other hazards because rivers begin at high elevations with runoff from rainfall. As the water flows downstream, it gathers more water from tributaries, streams, and rivers that run into it.
This increases the amount of water carried by the river and increases its potential for flooding or erosion along its path. Additionally, human interference can change how rivers flow which impacts their ability to provide vital resources such as alluvium or freshwater.
6. Knowing the source and mouth of a river can help us develop plans for flood prevention, land management, and conservation.
Knowing the source and mouth of a river can help us develop plans for flood prevention, land management, and conservation. By understanding where rivers begin and where they end, we can better understand how they affect the land around them.
This knowledge can be used to create strategies for preventing flooding in vulnerable areas, managing land use in areas with high levels of runoff from mountain ranges, and protecting valuable ecosystems around rivers that provide habitat for wildlife.
The source of a river is generally located on high ground where there is an abundant source of water, such as melting snow or spring overflow. The mouth of a river is where it flows into another body of water, such as an ocean or lake, or ends in dry land if there are no other bodies nearby. Knowing these two points gives us spatial information about how the river might impact its surrounding area depending on its source and mouth locations.
7. The source and mouth of a river can tell us about the history, culture, and economy of a region.
The source and mouth of a river can provide us with important information about the history, culture, and economy of a region. For example:
• The source of the river may reveal how that region was first settled – for example, if it is located near an abundant spring or melting snow.
• The mouth of the river may tell us about how people have interacted with that area over time – for example, if they have used it as a trading post or as a source of food.
• The presence or absence of tributaries can reveal how interconnected communities are in that area – for example, if there are no tributaries, then communities may not be as connected compared to areas with many tributaries joining into one large river system.
Different types of river sources and mouth features
1. River Mouth
The features of a river mouth include:
– The mouth is where the river enters into a new body of water, such as a bay, sea, or ocean.
– As the water flow from the river slows down and deposits mixtures of sediment called alluvium along the discharge area at a river mouth, distributary streams form, which branch off into smaller streams called mouths that flow into the new body of water.
– These mouths are surrounded by deltas – areas where sediments have piled up due to slow currents and wave action – which can range in size from small hills to large islands.
– River mouths also tend to have estuaries which are areas where tidal influences meet freshwater flows and create brackish waters rich in nutrients for marine life forms like fish and crustaceans.
A river delta is a region where a river meets an ocean, lake, or wetland, and its water slows down and spreads out into a fan shape. Deltas are characterized by sediment deposits, changes in the speed of water flow, and the development of distributary streams that branch off from the main river. These distributaries stem from one body of water but can lead to multiple outflow channels into another body of water, such as an ocean or lake.
Some examples of deltas include:
– The Nile River Delta, where the Nile River meets the Mediterranean Sea
– The Amazon River Delta, which spews sediment into the Atlantic Ocean
3. Great Flood
The Great Flood, also known as the Great Deluge or the Great Cataclysm, refers to a major flood that is believed to have occurred around 2300 BC. According to ancient Mesopotamian and Biblical stories, this flood was caused by God as a punishment for humanity’s sins. It is believed that this event led to significant changes in river source and mouth features around the world.
The Great Flood had a significant impact on river source and mouth features because it caused many rivers to change their courses due to erosion of their banks and flooding of their valleys.
This resulted in new river channels being formed, which changed where some rivers flowed into the ocean or other bodies of water. Additionally, it may have caused changes in topography, such as elevation changes or the formation of new lakes due to landslides triggered by heavy rainfall during the event.
4. Rhine River
The Rhine River is a source and mouth river located in South America. It is approximately 1,200 km long and has a mean discharge of 16,500 m³ / s. The river flows through Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands before reaching its mouth at the North Sea in Belgium and the Netherlands.
The Rhine River originates from several mountain streams in the Swiss Alps near Lake Constance. From there, it flows northward through Switzerland before entering Austria, where it turns eastward towards Germany. In Germany, it flows through several cities, such as Cologne and Bonn, before turning south towards the Netherlands, where it ends at its mouth in Belgium and the Netherlands.
5. Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is a source and mouth for the Missouri River. The mouth of the river forms as the water flow from it starts to slow down and deposit mixtures of sediment called alluvium along the discharge area at a river, bay, sea, or ocean.
As this sediment piles up and the flow of river water slows down further, distributary streams form, which are mouths that flow into new bodies of water.
The Mississippi River’s mouth is located at its confluence with the Missouri River in Louisiana, where it flows into a bay known as Lake Pontchartrain before emptying into the Gulf of Mexico.
6. Colorado River
The Colorado River is one of the largest rivers in North America, running through parts of California, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. It is known for its clear blue water and scenic views of the surrounding landscape.
The Colorado River has two distinct sections: source and mouth. As a source, it originates from multiple mountain ranges in central Colorado before flowing into Arizona’s Grand Canyon National Park. From there, it continues through Nevada and into California’s Mojave Desert before reaching its mouth at the Pacific Ocean near San Francisco Bay.
7. Nile River
The Nile River is the longest river in the world, stretching 6,690 kilometers (4,157 miles) from its source in Ethiopia to its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea. It has a drainage area of 2,870,000 square kilometers (1.79 million square miles) and an average discharge of 5100 cubic meters per second (160000 cubic feet per second).
The river also has multiple tributaries, including the White Nile and the Blue Nile, which contribute to its overall length.
The Nile River is significantly longer than other rivers such as the Amazon (6387 km / 3996 mi), Mississippi- Missouri (6270 km / 3966 mi), Yenisei-Angara Selenga (5 550 km / 3449 mi), Huang He or Yellow River(4667 km / 2903 mi).
Additionally, it has a larger drainage area than most other rivers on this list except for those located in Asia, like the Yangtze or Amur Rivers.
8. Amazon River
The Amazon River is the largest river in South America and the second longest river in the world, measuring at least 4,000 miles (6,400 km) long from its headwaters in southern Peru. It also has one of the largest drainage systems in the world, with an area of about 2.7 million square miles (7 million square km).
When compared to other rivers around the world, such as the Nile River, which is approximately 4200 miles (6800 km) long and carries twice as much water flow as the Amazon River at its mouth, it becomes clear how significant this South American river system is.
9. Hudson River
The Hudson River is a unique river source and mouth due to its features, including:
– Geographic location: The Hudson River is located in North America, flowing from the Adirondack Mountains in upstate New York to New York City.
– Length and drainage area: The Hudson River has a length of approximately 315 miles (507 km) and a drainage area of 16,980 square miles (43,000 km²).
– Waterflow and discharge rates: The river has an average water flow rate of 26.8 cubic feet per second (0.7 m³/s), with peak discharge rates reaching 545 cubic feet per second (15 m³/s).
The Hudson River flows through parts of eight different states in the United States before reaching its mouth at New York City on the east coast of North America.
10. Mississippi River Delta
The Mississippi River Delta is unique because of its size, shape, and location. It measures about 200 miles long and 85 miles across at its widest point, making it the largest river delta globally.
The delta is also located at the mouth of the Mississippi River in North America, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The shape of the delta is fan-like, with slow-moving water that spreads out into distributaries as it meets wetlands and other bodies of water.
Endowed with rich nutrients from sand and sediment picked up from upstream sources, this unique ecosystem provides breeding grounds for hundreds of species of fish and birds.
How to find out the source and mouth of a river?
Step 1: Research the river’s source
1. Research the location of the river, its source, and its mouth. Find out if it is a lake, a marsh, a spring, or a glacier that begins the stream.
2. Research what type of terrain surrounds the source of the river to determine if there is enough water for it to flow continuously downhill towards its estuary or confluence with another river or stream.
3. Find out if there are any natural processes that could affect this terrain and cause changes in water levels over time (for example, climate change).
4. Research how human activity has affected this area over time (for example, deforestation).
5. Analyze all of your findings to gain an understanding of how these factors impact the flow of water in this particular region and how they might influence changes in future years that end up affecting the source or mouth of this particular river system
Step 2: Find out the final destination of the river
1. Identify the source of the river. This is where the stream starts and is usually located in a mountain range or highlands.
2. Follow the river downstream to find out where it empties into a larger body of water, such as a lake or ocean. This is called its mouth or confluence point with another river or stream.
3. If needed, use maps and other geographical tools to locate where it meets its end destination at its mouth or confluence point with another river/stream.
For example, if you were tracking down how far the Mississippi River flows from its source to its mouth, you would first need to identify where it begins (the source). From there, you could follow it downstream until it reaches Baton Rouge in Louisiana before emptying into the Gulf of Mexico.
Step 3: Read about the geography of the region
Reading about the geography of a region can help you identify the source and mouth of a river. Knowing the landforms, cultural influences, and other geographical features of an area can help you determine where rivers originate from and where they end up.
For example, if you know that a river flows through mountainous terrain with many waterfalls, it is likely that it originated high in the mountains. Similarly, if a river flows into an ocean or another large body of water at its mouth, then it likely ends there.
Understanding these relationships between rivers and their environments can help you locate their sources or mouths more easily.
Step 4: Research the kinds of terrain present in the region
When trying to find out the source and mouth of a river, you should research terrains such as low foothills, valleys, mountain forests, and desert canyons.
These different types of terrain provide clues about where rivers may start or end. For example, low foothills provide an ideal location for a river’s source since they are higher than surrounding land and allow meltwater to collect. Similarly, deserts provide an ideal location for a river’s mouth since they are lower than surrounding land allowing water to flow out more easily.
Step 5: Look up information on the infrastructure available there
Along a river, infrastructure typically includes water treatment plants, bridges, docks and piers for boats and ships, wastewater treatment facilities, and pumping stations. In some areas, hydroelectric power plants may also be present along rivers. Additionally, riverside communities often have recreational facilities such as swimming pools, parks, and trails that provide access to the water.
Step 6: Find out about any tribal or traditional knowledge that may help you
1. Gather information about the area you want to locate the source and mouth of a river. This includes learning about local tribes, their history, and their culture, as well as studying maps and other geographical data.
2. Talk with members of local tribes who may have knowledge about the location of rivers or streams in their area that has not been documented in modern times.
3. Observe environmental factors such as water levels, vegetation changes, and wildlife migrations which can help indicate where a river may be located or flowing towards.
4. Use clues gathered from step 3 to determine potential locations for where a river may originate from or end at its mouth depending on terrain features such as mountains, valleys, and plains that could affect water flow patterns in that area. Example]
For example: If you’re looking for the source of a particular river in an area known for having many large mountains nearby, then it’s likely that this is where this particular river originated from due to its high elevation compared to surrounding areas which allows it to flow down towards lower elevation areas where it eventually meets its mouth at sea level (or into another larger body of water).
Step 7: Visiting a place where the river originates is always recommended.
The best place to visit to find out the source and mouth of a river is at its beginning, where the flow of water starts. Snow melting, groundwater overflowing, or excess rainwater running off mountains are all examples of this.
You can also visit its mouth to see where it empties into another body of water, such as an ocean or lake.
You can find these locations by exploring high-ground areas such as mountains or near sources of water like springs and lakes. Additionally, you can find out more information about specific rivers by researching them online or visiting museums that focus on geography or environmental studies topics related to rivers and their ecosystems.
Step 8: Make a list of books that can help you with your research
Books that can help you with your river research include:
• River Studies: An Introduction – William G. Howell
• Rivers and Their Ecology – Richard N. Kock
• Rivers and Streams: From Source to Sea – John R. Battista, David M. Walters, and Christopher J. Schoonmaker
• The Nature of Rivers – Michael Alderfer and Robert C. Bailey Jr.
Step 9: For best results, follow the instructions given in each book
1. Identify the river you want to find out the source and mouth of.
2. Find out the direction of flow of the river and identify its source point, which is usually located high in a mountain range or near a lake or glacier.
3. Identify where it meets another river or tributary, as this will be its mouth or outlet into another body of water, such as an ocean, lake, or reservoir.
4. To confirm your findings, check local maps for further information on rivers in your area and their sources and mouths if possible; consult experts if needed as well for more accurate results.
What is the source of a river?
The source of a river is the point where the flow of water begins. Examples of this may be melted snow, groundwater overflowing like a spring, or runoff from rainwater on mountains.
The source is usually located on high ground and is the farthest point from the estuary or confluence with another river or stream. The source may also be a lake, marsh, spring, or glacier – these are areas where streams start their journey toward their mouth at a larger body of water, such as an ocean or lake.
Rivers also have mouths which are places where they enter lakes/larger rivers/oceans and deposit alluvium (sediment).
What is the mouth of a river?
When a river flows into another body of water, it’s called the mouth.
A river mouth forms when water flow from a river slows down and deposits mixtures of sediment called alluvium along the discharge area at a river, bay, sea, or ocean. As sediment accumulates and river flow slows down, small streams branch off, creating mouths that flow into new bodies of water. The whole area where these distributary streams form is known as a delta.
How does sediment from a river basin deposit downstream?
Sediment from a river basin deposits downstream through a process of deposition and transport.
1. Deposition: When the river channel enters still water, such as a lake or sea, sediment is deposited faster than it is carried away, forming a raised area called a delta.
2. Transport: As the river flows across the delta, it splits into lots of channels, and sediments are transported across these channels.
3. Accumulation: Transported sediments are collected in large plains along the lower course of the river, where discharge spreads over floodplains during high water periods.
What is the gradient of a river?
The gradient of a river is the rate of change in elevation along its length. It can be generalized as gradually changing from steep to low gradient, from high to low elevation, and from small to large rivers.
As water moves downstream, it encounters lower gradients increasingly due to friction caused by the surrounding landscape. This results in slower flows with increased fine sediment deposition between rock and gravel substrates.
Additionally, side channels may form, which further decrease water velocity and increase particulate deposition within those areas. High-gradient riffles formed by cobbles or boulders during high-flow events are separated by pools which are repeated at regular intervals up to five times their width due to decreased flow velocity between them.
Low-gradient rivers have loose rocky substrates that allow for more diverse fish communities compared with those found in riffles with fewer deposited fine particles between substrates during typical base flow conditions
How does discharge influence the headwater of a river?
The headwaters of a river are the furthest stream from its mouth. In order to reach this point, the river must gather water from tributaries, streams, and rivers that run into it. Discharge is the volume of water that flows through a given area in a given time period (e.g., cubic meters per second).
As discharge increases, more water flows into the river’s headwaters and increases its overall volume of water carried by the river. This can lead to an increase in sediment loadings as well as changes in nutrient availability for organisms living downstream.
What is the effect of meandering on a river’s erosion?
River channels vary in shape based on how much water has flowed through them and over what kind of soil and vegetation they have passed through. Meandering courses are formed when the river channel widens due to increased discharge and decreased gradient.
The outer, concave bank gets eroded, and the inner, convex bank gets sediment deposited. This causes the valley to widen as the river meanders further.
How does the floodplain of a river affect its ecology?
The floodplain of a river is the low, flat area next to it that periodically floods when the water level is high.
The animals and plants that live in this area benefit from floods as they provide essential nutrients and habitat for survival. The floodplains also absorb large amounts of water, which would otherwise rush downstream, threatening people and property.
What are the different landforms associated with a river?
No two rivers are the same, but they all share some basic anatomical features. Rivers range from small streams and wetlands to large waterways. They can be classified into three main landforms based on their features:
1. Channelized Rivers: These are large rivers that have been altered by human activity, such as damming or dredging, resulting in a more linear shape with deeper channels and faster currents.
2. Braided Rivers: These rivers feature multiple channels that split off from the main river and rejoin later on, often forming complex networks of islands and sandbars which shift due to changing water levels or flooding events.
3. Undammed Rivers: Undammed rivers are those that have not been altered by human activity; they have a more natural shape with meandering channels and slower currents than channelized rivers do.
How does the discharge rate of a river affect its velocity?
The discharge rate of a river affects its velocity because as the discharge rate increases, so does the volume of water flowing downstream. This increase in volume increases the speed at which the water flows.
As a result, rivers with higher discharge rates tend to have higher velocities than those with lower discharge rates.
What is the impact of human interference on a river’s ecosystem?
Humans have rapidly introduced a wide array of disturbances to which river organisms have had no previous exposure during their evolution. We have dammed, channelized, diverted, drained, filled, and polluted streams and rivers.
We have removed riparian vegetation, paved extensive portions of river catchments, and isolated river systems from their floodplains.
Our influences on rivers alter the nature of rivers and affect all of the processes described above.
Heavy rainfall or snowmelt can greatly magnify stream water volume in a short period of time, causing rapidly flowing water that carries large quantities of sand and gravel, which effectively removes the periphyton layer, causing macroinvertebrate abundances reduced by half or more.
Additionally, communities persist despite natural disturbance impacts considered to be of greater magnitude due to human interference.