The Bay of Bengal, the largest bay in the world, was formed by plate tectonic activity. Millions of years ago, the Indian subcontinent slammed into the Eurasian landmass creating the Sundar Trench. Plate tectonics continues to work here today, so the region is home to underwater quakes and tsunamis.
The climate of the Bay of Bengal is dominated by the monsoons, which bring rain from the southwest during the summer and northeast winds from the north during the winter. Cyclones occur in spring and fall.
What is the Bay of Bengal?
India borders the Bay of Bengal on the west and northwest, Bangladesh on the north, Myanmar on the east, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on the south.
The bay covers approximately 2,600,000 square kilometers (1,000,000 sq mi) and is one of the world’s largest bodies of fresh water.
The bay gets its name from the historical Bengal region and may have been referred to as Mahodadhi or Sinus Gangeticus in ancient Indian maps.
The Bay of Bengal gets its water from many major rivers in India and Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, the Ganga joins the Padma River before joining the Meghna River.
Marine biology, flora, and fauna
The Bay of Bengal is full of biological diversity, including coral reefs, estuaries, fish spawning, nursery areas, and mangroves. Marlin, barracuda, skipjack tuna, yellowfin tuna, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin, and Bryde’s whale can all be seen in the Bay of Bengal.
It’s an area of high biodiversity, with many endangered and vulnerable species. The main causes of the loss of habitats are coastal development, increasing trade in products from coastal habitats, and climate change impacts.
How are Bays Formed?
Bays are formed when water flows out of a river or stream and collects into a body of water.
There are different types of rock, and headlands help form bays. It’s easier to erode bands of soft rock like clay and sand. Bays are formed this way. Bays are inlets where the land curves inwards (like a U shape), usually with a beach.
What is a Bay?
A bay is a body of water formed when two rivers flow into one another. It is usually surrounded by land except at its mouth. The term “bay” comes from the French word bai meaning “mouth” or “entrance”.
A bay is a large inland sea, especially enclosed by a barrier such as a peninsula or an island, often filled with saltwater. Bays are typically narrow bodies of water, bounded by steep banks rising up from the shoreline. They vary greatly in size; some are only a few miles across, while others cover hundreds of square miles.
There are several types of bays, depending on their shape and location. Examples include:
- Inland bays – bays separated from the ocean by lowlands or mountains.
- Fjords – long, deep valleys cut through coastal areas by glaciers or tectonic activity. Fjords are commonly associated with fjellets, similar formations but lacking a valley.
- Hollows – depressions in the ground caused by erosion or subsidence. Hollows may be dry or wet.
Wildlife in the Bay of Bengal
Several endangered animals live in the Bay of Bengal, an incredibly rich and diverse area. Some areas of the bay have brackish water due to so many rivers draining into it. The Bay of Bengal has low surface salinity levels. As a result of these unique conditions, its marine wildlife is diverse.
Which River Falls in the Bay of Bengal?
The Bay of Bengal gets its water from several large rivers, including the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri (Cauvery) on the west, the Ganges (Ganga), and the Brahmaputra on the north.
What is Bay of Bengal known for?
There are many endangered species living in the Bay of Bengal, one of the world’s largest marine ecosystems. Numerous animal and fish species breed in its forests, waterways, coral reefs, estuaries, and deltas.
The river Ganga, the 28th longest river on earth, flows into the Bay of Bengal after joining the Meghna river. The Brahmaputra river flows through Assam and enters Bangladesh as the Jamuna river.
The Mahanadi-Godavari delta, near the Bay of Bengal, has been discovered with significant gas and oil reserves. Titanium deposits are also found on the northeastern coast of Sri Lanka.
The Bay of Bengal is triangular in shape and has swallowed many ships, including the Brig Eagle, the Bark and the Euterpe, and the SS Automedon.